I came across this table below to identify the home state (Indian) to which a a BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd) cellphone belong to. For example, if the cell phone number is 9447100100, its first 4 digits are 9447, which belong to Kerala state as per the lookup table given below.
|Andaman & Nicobar Islands (A&N)||9479, 9432|
|Andhra Pradesh (AP)||9473 , 9440, 9441|
|Himachal Pradesh (HP)||9451,9418|
|Jammu & Kashmir (J&K)||9452,9419|
|Madhya Pradesh (MP)||9458,9425|
|North East (NE) states||9477|
|Tamil Nadu (TN)||9480, 9443|
|Utter Pradesh (UP) East||9455, 9415|
|Utter Pradesh (UP( West||9454, 9412|
|West Begnal (WB)||9474, 9434|
As of now, I do not have the similar kind of information for other mobile providers in India. I will publish it as soon as I get the information.
Hope this helps. Please post more BSNL numbers if I am missing any in this list.